القران الكريم - جواد فروغى - سورة التكوير - 81 Javad Foroughi - Young Qari Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/pages/%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%82%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%86-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%83%D8%B1%D9%8A%D9%85/492921717421054 The Quran ( Arabic: القرآن al-qurʾān, literally meaning "the recitation"), also transliterated Qur'an, Koran, Al-Coran, Coran, Kuran, and Al-Qur'an, is the central religious islamic text of Islam, which we Muslims believe to be the verbatim word of God (Arabic: الله, Allah). It is the finest piece of literature in the whole world. We Muslims believe the Quran to be verbally revealed through angel Gabriel (Jibril) (as.) from Allah subhana wa ta3ala to Muhammad s.a.s gradually over a period of approximately 23 years beginning on 22 December 609 CE, when Muhammad s.a.s. was 40, and concluding in 632 CE, the year of Prophet Muhammads (s.a.s.) death. Shortly after Muhammad's (s.a.s.) death the noble Quran was compiled into a single book by order of our first Caliph Abu Bakr (ra.) and at the suggestion of his future successor Umar (r.a.). Hafsa (ra.) , Muhammad's (s.a.s.) widow and Caliph Umar's (r.a.) daughter, was entrusted with that Quranic text after the second Caliph Umar (s.a.s.) died. When the third Caliph Uthman (ra.) began noticing slight differences in pronunciation of the Quranic Arabic by those whose dialect was not that of the Quraish, he sought Hafsa's (ra.) permission to use her text and commissioned a committee to produce a standard copy of the text of the noble Quran to add diacritical marks, which would ensure correct pronunciation, and be set as the standard dialect, the Quraish dialect, now known as Fus'ha. Five of these original Qurans (Mus'haf) were sent to the major Muslim cities of the era, with Uthman (r.a.) keeping one for his own use in Medina. Any variations to standardized text were invalidated and ordered to be destroyed, all other versions of the Noble Quran copied by scribes subsequently were from this codex. This process of formalization is known as the "Uthmanic recension". The present form of the noble Quran text is accepted by most scholars as the original version compiled by Abu Bakr (r.a.) We Muslims regard the noble Quran as the main miracle of Muhammad s.a.s., the proof of his prophethood and the culmination of a series of divine messages that started with the messages revealed to Adam (a.s.), the first prophet, and continued with the Scrolls of Abraham (a.s.) (Suhuf Ibrahim), the Tawrat (Torah or Pentateuch) of Moses (a.s.), the Zabur (Tehillim or Book of Psalms) of David (as.) and the Injil (Gospel) of Jesus (a.s.). The noble Quran describes itself as a book of guidance, sometimes offering detailed accounts of specific historical events, and often emphasizing the moral significance of an event over its narrative sequence. The word qurʾān appears about 70 times in the noble Quran itself, assuming various meanings. It is a verbal noun (maṣdar) of the Arabic verb qaraʾa (قرأ), meaning "he read" or "he recited." The Syriac equivalent is qeryānā, which refers to "scripture reading" or "lesson". While most Western scholars consider the word to be derived from the Syriac, our majority of Muslims authorities hold the origin of the word is qaraʾa itself. In any case, it had become an Arabic term by Muhammad's (s.a.s) lifetime. An important meaning of the word is the "act of reciting", as reflected in an early Quranic passage: "It is for Us to collect it and to recite it (qurʾānahu)". In other verses, the word refers to "an individual passage recited [by Muhammad (s.a.s)]". Its liturgical context is seen in a number of passages, for example: "So when al-qurʾān is recited, listen to it and keep silent". The word may also assume the meaning of a codified scripture when mentioned with other scriptures such as the Torah and Gospel. The term also has closely related synonyms that are employed throughout the Quran. Each synonym possesses its own distinct meaning, but its use may converge with that of qurʾān in certain contexts. Such terms include kitāb ("book"); āyah ("sign"); and sūrah ("scripture"). The latter two terms also denote units of revelation. In the large majority of contexts, usually with a definite article (al-), the word is referred to as the "revelation" (wahy), that which has been "sent down" (tanzīl) at intervals. Other related words are: dhikr, meaning "remembrance," used to refer to the Quran in the sense of a reminder and warning; and ḥikma, meaning "wisdom", sometimes referring to the revelation or part of it. The Quran has many other names. Among those found in the text itself are al-furqān ("discernment" or "criterion"), al-hudah ("the guide"), ḏikrallāh ("the remembrance of God"), hikmah|al-ḥikmah ("the wisdom"), and kalāmallāh ("the word of God").